19 (73%) persons had well-controlled hypertension

19 (73%) persons had well-controlled hypertension. exhibited significantly elevated numbers of intermediate monocytes known for their M2-like properties as well as high angiopoietic potential and CD163 expression. This obtaining was accompanied by detection of elevated sCD163 Carnosic Acid plasma levels in IgAN patients. Taking together, we demonstrated here that IgAN is usually associated with selective mobilization of VSELs and increased maturation of monocytes towards M2-like and angiopoietic phenotype. These findings contribute to better understanding of the role of regenerative mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in the course of IgAN. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: VSELs, Monocytes, EPCs, HSCs, IgA nephropathy, SDF-1, sCD163, Ang-1, Ang-2, Regeneration Introduction IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is recognized as most frequent form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Diagnosis is established exclusively by kidney biopsy where the pathognomonic obtaining on immunofluorescence microscopy is the presence of mesangial deposits of IgA antibodies. Exact mechanisms leading to development of IgAN are unclear and despite available treatment options, slow progression to end stage renal disease occurs in up to 50% of affected patients [1]. Therefore, there is still a substantial need for better understanding of mechanisms involved in IgAN pathogenesis and renal regeneration processes. However, to date, it remains elusive whether pathological changes observed in IgAN are somehow IL-20R1 counteracted by the activation of any regenerative mechanisms related to stem cells or other cells with regenerative potential. Stem cells with highest regenerative potential such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), very small embryonic like cells (VSELs), epithelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be found in bone marrow [2, Carnosic Acid 3]. Importantly, several reports indicated that bone marrow derived stem cells may support regeneration of such distant tissues as kidney [4]. These stem cell subsets can differentiate into tubular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, endothelial cells and podocytes [5C9]. Notably, in several mouse models of renal injury, including folic acid induced acute tubular injury and ischemia-reperfusion injury, bone marrow derived cells showed reparative capacity [10C12]. On the other hand, bone marrow derived cells may function as local regulators of inflammatory processes Carnosic Acid directly via cell-to-cell conversation and indirectly by release of anti-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors [13, 14]. In a consequence, they can act as orchestrators of innate and adaptive immune response within injured tissue. This can lead to increased migration and modulation of the function of leukocytes, including monocytes/macrophages [15C17]. In fact, several populations of mononuclear cells such as M2 macrophages and intermediate monocytes characterized by CD14++CD16+ phenotype can support stem cells in some regenerative actions, mostly those related to reconstruction of injured vessels [18, 19]. These mononuclear cells were shown to support regeneration process mostly by regulation of angiogenesis and the release of several growth factors [18, 20, 21]. To date, however, our understanding of the mechanisms of renal regeneration in humans remains limited. Therefore, in this study, we wished to evaluate regenerative potential of IgAN patients by enumerating different stem cell subsets as well as monocyte subsets with varying reparatory capacity. Materials and Methods Patients Protocol of the study adhered to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethics committee. All patients provided informed consent. Patients were recruited in outpatient clinic of Department of Nephrology. Inclusion criteria were following: clinically stable, biopsy-proven IgAN in stages 1C4 of chronic kidney disease. Exclusion criteria were following: eGFR 15?ml/min/1,73?m2 (CKD stage 5) as the authors assumed irreversibility of kidney damage, chronic or acute infection or other inflammatory disease, neoplasmatic disease, immunosuppressive treatment at the moment of recruitment and in the 12?months preceding recruitment. All patients were Caucasian. Mean age was 44?years. There were 12 females in study.