The results of the primary analysis excluding CMV seronegative individuals are shown in Table S1
The results of the primary analysis excluding CMV seronegative individuals are shown in Table S1. Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. We used linear regression to quantify the association between a $10,000 decrease in income and each percentage end result. Results Modifying for age, sex, race, smoking, medication use, and lifetime history of mental health conditions, lower income was associated with a 0.41 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.72) log-unit increase in the CD4 E:N percentage and a 0.20 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.39) log-unit increase in the CD8 E:N ratio. CMV IgG antibody level partially mediated these associations. Conclusions Our study suggests that low socioeconomic status is associated with immunological ageing as measured from the E:N percentage and that impaired immune control of CMV may partially mediate these associations. value 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Some have argued that seronegative individuals should be excluded from analyses of stress-related reactivation of herpesvirus antibody titers to ensure that any observed associations cannot be attributed to underlying variations in seropositivity.(50) While individuals with CMV OD percentage ideals of 1.0 are typically considered seronegative, the use of this cut-off level has been arbitrarily defined. We therefore chose to retain individuals with CMV IgG levels below this level (N=18, 23%) in the present study. We did, however, conduct level of sensitivity analyses excluding individuals with CMV OD percentage ideals 1.0 to assess the effect of including these individuals on our findings. Furthermore, to provide insight into the factors underlying the observed associations and to inform long term meta analyses, we examined the Spearmans rank correlation coefficients comparing each component of the T-cell results and CMV with each other, as well as with each study covariate. Results The overall sociodemographic and medical characteristics of the 79 study participants are demonstrated in Table 1. Participants were a median of 45 years of age (IQR: 35-56), 50 (63%) were female, and 69 (80%) were black. Approximately half (N=38, 48%) of the participants had attained at most a high school education and 57 (72%) reported an annual household income AZD8797 level of less than $35,000. The majority (N=61, 77%) of participants were CMV seropositive and the median CMV IgG antibody level was 3.6 OD ratio units (IQR: 1.3C6.6). Table 1 Sociodemographic and medical characteristics of 79 participants in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. value 0.10 **value 0.05 aMedications included antimicrobial agents, cardiovascular-renal medicines, central nervous system medications, metabolic and nutrient agents, hormones and agents influencing hormonal mechanisms, immunologic agents, oncolytics, and medicines used for relief of pain. bMental health conditions included generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The associations between annual household income level and the T-cell results modified for covariates are demonstrated in Number 1. Adjusting only for demographic covariates (age, sex, and race), each $10,000 decrease in annual household income level was associated with a 0.35 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.64) unit increase in log CD4 E:N percentage and a 0.16 (95% CI: ?0.01, 0.32) unit increase in log CD8 E:N percentage. The associations were slightly stronger after additional adjustment for smoking status, medication use, and lifetime history of mental health conditions (: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.72 for log CD4 E:N SGK2 percentage and : 0.20, 95% AZD8797 CI: 0.02, 0.39 for log CD8 E:N percentage). Lower income level was also associated with a marginal decrease in the log CD4:CD8, but the associations were not statistically significant (Number 1). Open in a separate window Number 1 Associations between each $10K decrease in annual household income and the distribution of T cell phenotypes among 79 participants in the Detroit Neighborhood Health StudyAbbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; E:N percentage, percentage of end-stage non-proliferative effector cells (E; CCR7?CD45RA+CD27?CD28? or TEMRA) to na?ve T-cells (N; CCR7+CD45RA+CD27+CD28+) Triangles and related bars indicate the and 95% confidence intervals for any log unit increase in each end result associated with a $10,000 decrease in annual household income. *value 0.10 **value 0.05 Model 1: modified for age, sex and race. AZD8797 Model 2: modified for age, sex, race, cigarette smoking status, medication use, and lifetime history of mental health conditions. Number 2 shows the results of the mediation analysis, which.