None of these patients had used any additional immunosuppressive drugs

None of these patients had used any additional immunosuppressive drugs. protection rates were achieved in patients using ustekinumab and etanercept (72% and 88.9%, respectively; p ?0.05). The HBV vaccine response rate in patients using immunomodulators was significantly lower than that in immunocompetent patients. Furthermore, high dose vaccination did not increase the response rate. Clinicians should take into account administering HBV vaccination before treatment with biological agent in patients who have negative HBV serology. sample Tepilamide fumarate size estimations, and power analyses. Regardless of the underlying autoimmune diseases, immunomodulator drugs suppress the expected effective antibody response to vaccination. Moreover, the desired protection rates cannot be achieved despite HBV vaccination carried out at high doses. For this reason, the most effective method to immunize this patient group would be completion of their vaccination before initiation CD33 of immunomodulatory therapy. Materials and methods Patients and specimens The medical files of seronegative patients for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc IgG, who had been referred to our outpatient clinic for the use of immunomodulatory drugs (adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, ustekinumab, golimumab) between May 2016 and February 2018, were retrospectively evaluated. None of these patients had used any additional immunosuppressive drugs. The serum level of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) was examined in patients over the age of 18 after vaccination with the standard dose (20?g/mL) or high dose (40?g/mL) hepatitis B vaccine and they were included in the study. The age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, concomitant drug use, primary disease, treatment protocol and duration of use, and serum anti-HBs titers of the participants were recorded. Obesity was defined as Tepilamide fumarate having a body mass index of over 30 kg/m2. The vaccines were brought to the hospital by the Republic of Turkey health ministry, Tepilamide fumarate abiding by the cold chain rules. The standard vaccine dose was 20?g/ml, while the high dose was 40?g/ml. The vaccine (Engerix-B) was applied intramuscularly to the left deltoid muscle at three doses (0, 4, 24?weeks). The serum anti-HBs titer was measured one month after the last dose of the vaccine. Serological tests were performed using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA method (ETIMAX 3000, Diasorin, Italy). According to the Tepilamide fumarate serum Anti-HBs titers, the patients having an antibody level of over 10?IU/mL were defined as responders, and those having a lower than 10?IU/mL antibody level as non-responders.13 This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Health Sciences, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital. Signed informed consent forms were obtained from all the patients. Statistical analysis The descriptive statistics of the study results were presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables, and mean and standard deviation for the numerical variables. The independent groups were compared using the Chi-square Tepilamide fumarate test in terms of categorical data and the Wilcoxon test was used for the numerical data. The Anti-HBs titers were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric variance analysis between the drug groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for the post-hoc analyses.The package program, SPSS 21 software (IBM Inc., Armonk, NY, USA), was used for analyses of the study results and a 5% Type-I error was considered statistically significant. The statistical significance level was accepted as 0.05 in all tests. Funding Statement The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors..