Moreover, daytime sleepiness, and feelings of increased malaise as well as lethargy are the factors that may negatively affect Muslim athletes toward undesirable mood swings (64, 65)

Moreover, daytime sleepiness, and feelings of increased malaise as well as lethargy are the factors that may negatively affect Muslim athletes toward undesirable mood swings (64, 65). fasting on resting values and responses of immunological/antioxidant biomarkers in elite and recreational athletes, together with the important health, nutrition, and exercise guidance that fasting people need to follow in the event of a COVID-19 outbreak. feeding) have been shown to increase lifespan, improve insulin sensitivity, reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as mortality of cancer and cardiovascular disease (23C27). However, major beneficial effects of Ramadan fasting on people’s health (Physique 2) also will be discussed, together with the main mechanisms for improvement, in the following sentences (28): Open in a separate window Physique 2 A summary of the main beneficial effects of fasting in different parts of the body. 1) It causes weight loss and Setiptiline maintenance among overweight and obese people (29). 2) Glucose homeostasis occurs amongst obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, together with reduction in percentage body fat and in HbA1c (29). 3) There is a greatly improved survival rate and recovery of heart function and modulate cardiovascular risks (30). 4) It may protect neurons against aging disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease and stroke) (31, 32). 5) Fasting reduces insulin resistance vs. continuous energy restriction amongst the overweight and, in obese, non-diabetic subjects, it may therefore have an important role in protecting against obesity-related cancers (33). 6) There are decreases in resting heart rate, insulin, circulating levels of glucose and homocysteine which are favorable with regards to the risk of cardiovascular disease (34, 35). 7) It reduces excess fat mass, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (29). 8) There is equivalent reduction in blood pressure (35). 9) There is a reduction in serum triglycerides, markers of oxidative stress and inflammation (29). 10) Circulating ketone levels are also elevated around the fasting days (36). 11) Effects on a number of malignancy risk biomarkers occur (e.g., insulin, cytokines, and the inflammation-related molecules leptin and adiponectin) which are thought to mediate the effects of adiposity and excessive energy intake around the development and growth of cancers in humans (35, 37). 12) A reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1 has been reported in normal and overweight subjects (38). Overall, the abovementioned recent small trials of Ramadan fasting in multiple patients have been presented promising results that prepare the main reason for moving forward to perform larger clinical trials in patients with a wide range of disorders. However, this area of research is still in its infancy and requires the cooperation of various researchers CD14 and further research before reaching a definitive conclusion. Ramadan Fasting May Affect Immune Function The immune system in the human body is an business consisting of cells and molecules that play a role in defending against infections. The Setiptiline two types of immune system include the innate immune response, which acts the same when exposed to an infectious agent multiple occasions, and the acquired immune response, which is usually enhanced by repeated exposure to the infectious agent (39). In the innate immune response, phagocytic cells (macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes), cells that secrete inflammatory mediators (eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils), and natural killer cells play key functions. Also, cytokines, complement, and acute phase proteins are molecular components of the innate immune system. But the cells involved in the acquired immune response are antigen-specific B and T cells, which proliferate when their surface receptors bind to antigens. B cells release antibodies that target extracellular microorganisms. The role of T cells in acquired immunity is to help B cells to producing Setiptiline antibodies and also kill virus-infected cells and intracellular pathogens by activating Setiptiline macrophages (39). There have been many studies on the effects of Ramadan fasting on the immune system, which have shown that fasting can restore the immune system (20, 40). Fasting for at least 3 days allows the body to start producing new white blood cells, which rejuvenates the immune system to fight infection. Although it has been shown in humans and animals that the number of white blood cells decreases with long-term fasting,.